Welcome!

@DevOpsSummit Authors: Dana Gardner, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Stefano Stabellini, Elizabeth White

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Linux Containers, Containers Expo Blog, @BigDataExpo, @DevOpsSummit

@CloudExpo: Article

Wasted IT Resources

Resource consolidation through newer architectures and solutions like PaaS is a way to tackle this

David Rubinstein's post "Industry Watch: Be resilient as you PaaS" makes a very good point about underutilized hardware in IT data-centers.

Millions of enterprise workloads remain in data centers, where servers are 30% to 40% underutilized, and that's if they're virtualized. If not, they're only using 5% to 7% of capacity.

The reason for this?

Take, for example, servers that are spun up for a project two years ago that were never decommissioned, just sitting there, waiting for a new workload that will never come. And, because the costs of blades and racks went down, cheap hardware has led to a kind of data center sprawl.

So is IT buying new hardware for each new project and not recycling? Is this because projects do not clearly die? Do we need "time of death" announcements mandated on IT projects?

Late last year, the US Government Accountability Office reported that the Federal IT spends 70% of its IT budget on care for legacy systems. That's $56 billion! How many of those legacy systems are rusty old projects with low utilization and are over-consuming resources?

Who wants those old servers? They might only be 2 years "old," but each new project has its own requirements and trying to retrofit old hardware to shiny new projects is probably undesirable. A project has a budget and specifications. A project needs X number of machines, with Y gigabytes of RAM and numerous other requirements. Can second-hand hardware fit the bill? If it can, can we find enough of it? Nobody wants a Frankenstein's monster of a cluster or the risk that it would be difficult to grow the cluster in the future. Better to go with new servers.

IaaS
IaaS provides a path to a solution. It makes it easier to provision and decommission resources. Virtual machines can be sized to fit the task. Even if specific new hardware is required to meet the SLA (Service Level Agreement) demands of a new project, it can be recycled back in the available resources.

But does IaaS go far enough?

IaaS provides infrastructure to be used by projects. But as David Rubinstein points out, even virtualized machines are still 30% to 40% underutilized. This is because virtual machines are provisioned as a best guess of what might be required by the software that is intended to run on it. The business does the math of the traffic they hope to receive and then adds some padding to be safe. They pass the numbers to Operations who provision the machines. Once a machine is provisioned those resources are locked in.

Virtualized or not, adding and removing servers to a cluster can be logistically difficult if the application is not designed with scale in mind. When it comes to legacy IT, it is probably better to leave as-is than to invest more resources and risk in a project that is receiving no engineering attention.

Configuration Management
While IaaS is an essential building block of the cloud, it is not the solution. Pioneers in the age of DevOps have shifted the mindset from pets (knowing every machine by its cute name) to cattle (anonymous machines in named clusters). But even on the other side of this transition we are still focused on machines and operating systems.

Configuration management helps us to wrangle and make sense of our cattle. It whips our machines into some kind of uniform shape with the intention of moving them all in the same direction, but not without considerable sweat and tears. Snowflake servers that did not receive that last vital update, for reasons unknown, bring disease to the herd.

In Andrew C. Oliver's InfoWorld post "The platform-as-a-service winner is ... Puppet", he makes a good point that IT organizations are also "not a beautiful or unique snowflake".

Whatever you're doing with your IT infrastructure, someone else is probably doing the exact same thing. If what you're doing is so damn unique, then you're probably adding needless layers of complexity and you should stop.

Is configuration management the answer? It enables every organization to build beautiful unique snowflakes, but all the business actually wants is an igloo.

Thin Servers
Servers are getting thinner. There is shift from caring about the overhead of the operating systems to focusing on the processes. CoreOS is great example of this and there is also boot2docker on the development side. We will no doubt see many more flavors of this in the next few years.

If we encapsulate the complexity of software applications and services in containers then the host operating system becomes much simpler, less of a concern and more standardized. If we can find an elegant way to spread the containers across our cluster then we only need to provision a cluster of thin standardized servers to house them.

Containers
Why Containers? Why not virtual machines or hardware?

Filling a cluster with virtual machines, where each virtual machine is dedicated to a single task is wasteful. It's like trying to utilize the space in a jar by filling it with marbles, when we could be filling it with sand. Depending on your hardware and virtual machine relationship, it might even be like filling it with oranges.

Containers are also portable - and not just in a deployment sense. In a recent talk on "Google Compute Engine and Docker", Marc Cohen from Google spoke about how they migrate running GAE instances from one datacenter to another, while only seeing a flicker of transitional downtime. vSphere also has similar tools for doing this with virtual machines. Surely, it is only a matter of time before we see this commonly available with Linux containers.

Clusters
We need clusters; not machines, not operating systems. We need clusters that support containers. Maybe we need "Cluster-as-a-Service." Actually, maybe we don't need any more "-as-a-Service" acronyms.

Just as we have stopped caring about the unique name of individual servers, we should stop caring about the details of a cluster. When I have a machine with 16Gb of RAM, do I need to care if it's 2x8Gb DIMMS or 4x4Gb? No, I only need to know that this machine gives me "16Gb of RAM". Eventually we will view clusters in the same way.

Now that we can fill jars with sand instead of oranges, we can be less particular about the size and shape of the jars we choose to build our cluster. Throwing away old jars is easier when we can pour the sand into a new jar.

The Why
I believe we always should start with "why." Why am I writing a script to run continuous integration and ensure I always have the latest version of HAProxy installed on all the frontend servers? Why are we buying more RAM and installing Memcached servers?

The "why" is ultimately a business reason - which is a long way from the command-line prompt.

Todd Underwood's excellent talk on "PostOps: A Non-Surgical Tale of Software, Fragility, and Reliability" highlights the SLA as the contract that is made with the business and ensures that the Operations team is delivering the throughput, response time and uptime that the business expects. Beyond that they have free reign to ensure that the SLA is met.

Too many SysAdmins and Operations Engineers are stuck in the mindset of machines and operating systems. They have spent their careers thinking this way and honing their skills. They focus too much on the "what" and the "how", not on the "why".

At some level these skills are vital. The harder you push, the more likely it is that you will find a problem further down the stack and have to roll up your sleeves and get dirty.

Operations teams are responsible every level of stack, from the metal upwards. Even in the age of "the cloud" and outsourcing, an Operations team that does not feel that they themselves are ultimately responsible for their stack will have issues at some point. An example of this is Netflix, who use Amazon's cloud infrastructure service and may actually understand it better than Amazon. They take responsibility for their stack very seriously and because of this they are able to provide an amazingly resilient service at incredible scale.

Focusing solely on machines and operating systems does not scale and too many IT departments find it difficult to transcend this. Netflix are a good example here too. When you have tens of thousands of machines you are not going worry about keeping them all in sync or fixing machines that are having issues unless it is pandemic. Use virtualization, create golden images, if a machine is limping - shoot it. This is how Netflix operates. And to ensure that their sharp-shooters are always at the top of their game, Netflix uses tools like Chaos Monkey. They are purposely putting wolves amongst their sheep.

DevOps is a movement that aims to liberate IT from its legacy mindset. It aims to step back and take a look at the bigger picture. View business needs. Address the needs that span across the currently siloed Dev and Ops. This may be through fancy new orchestration and CI tools or be through organizational changes.

Tools and infrastructure are evolving so quickly that the best tool today will not be the best tool tomorrow. It is difficult to keep up.

Todd Underwood said that Operations Engineers, or rather Site Reliability Engineers, at Google are always working just outside of their own understanding. This is the best way to keep moving forward. From this, I take that if you fully understand the tools you are using, you are probably moving too slowly and falling behind. Just do not move so quickly that you jeopardize operational safety.

As long as we focus on "why", we can keep building our stack around that purpose instead of around our favorite naming convention, our favorite operating system and favorite toolset.

PaaS
PaaS is currently the best tool for orchestrating the container layer above the cluster layer. It manages the sand in your jars. ActiveState's PaaS solution, Stackato, also provides a way to manage the human side of your infrastructure. By integrating with your LDAP server, providing organizational and social aspects you can see your applications as applications, rather than as infrastructure.

As Troy Topnik points out in a recent post IaaS is not required to run Stackato. Although an IaaS will make managing your cluster easier as you grow.

But will an IaaS help with managing your resources at the application level? No. Will it help identify wasted resources? No. Will it put you directly in touch with the owners of the applications? No. But PaaS will.

Visibility
The reasons for waste in IT organizations are many. One reason is the way resources are provisioned for projects. The boundaries of a project are defined too far down the stack, even though a project may simply be defined by a series of processes, message queues and datastores. Another reason for waste is bad utilization of resources from the outset - not building the infrastructure where resources can be shared. A third reason for waste is lack of visibility into where waste is occurring.

Lack of visibility comes from not being able to see or reason about machines and projects. Machine responsibilities may be cataloged by IT, but will it be visible by all involved? Building the relationship between machines, processes and projects is still a documentation task without PaaS.

If redundant applications are not visible to the entire organization, then those accountable for announcing "time of death" will less likely make that call. Old projects which should be end-of-lifed will continue to over-consume their allocated resources - resources that were allocated with the hope of what the project may one day become.

Conclusion
Nobody likes waste. Resource consolidation through newer architectures and solutions like PaaS is a way to tackle this. PaaS brings more visibility to your IT infrastructure. It exposes resources at the application level. It spreads resources evenly across your cluster in a way that enables you to scale up and down with ease and utilizes all your hardware efficiently.

Source: ActiveState, originally published, here.

More Stories By Phil Whelan

Phil Whelan has been a software developer at ActiveState since early 2012 and has been involved in many layers of the Stackato product, from the JavaScript-based web console right through to the Cloud Controller API. He has been the lead developer on kato, the command-line tool for administering Stackato. His current role at ActiveState is Technology Evangelist.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@DevOpsSummit Stories
Much of the value of DevOps comes from a (renewed) focus on measurement, sharing, and continuous feedback loops. In increasingly complex DevOps workflows and environments, and especially in larger, regulated, or more crystallized organizations, these core concepts become even more critical. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 18th Cloud Expo, Andi Mann, Chief Technology Advocate at Splunk, showed how, by focusing on 'metrics that matter,' you can provide objective, transparent, and meaningful feedback on DevOps processes to all stakeholders. Learn from real-life examples how to use the data g...
Keeping pace with advancements in software delivery processes and tooling is taxing even for the most proficient organizations. Point tools, platforms, open source and the increasing adoption of private and public cloud services requires strong engineering rigor – all in the face of developer demands to use the tools of choice. As Agile has settled in as a mainstream practice, now DevOps has emerged as the next wave to improve software delivery speed and output. To make DevOps work, organizations must focus on what is most relevant to deliver value, reduce IT complexity, create more repeatable...
In the world of DevOps there are ‘known good practices’ – aka ‘patterns’ – and ‘known bad practices’ – aka ‘anti-patterns.' Many of these patterns and anti-patterns have been developed from real world experience, especially by the early adopters of DevOps theory; but many are more feasible in theory than in practice, especially for more recent entrants to the DevOps scene. In this power panel at @DevOpsSummit at 18th Cloud Expo, moderated by DevOps Conference Chair Andi Mann, panelists discussed the patterns and anti-patterns of DevOps, and what it means to ‘do the right thing’ in a DevOps wa...
DevOps at Cloud Expo – being held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real results. Among the proven benefits, DevOps is correlated with 20% faster time-to-market, 22% improvement in qua...
What does it look like when you have access to cloud infrastructure and platform under the same roof? Let’s talk about the different layers of Technology as a Service: who cares, what runs where, and how does it all fit together. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Phil Jackson, Lead Technology Evangelist at SoftLayer, an IBM company, spoke about the picture being painted by IBM Cloud and how the tools being crafted can help fill the gaps in your IT infrastructure.
Kubernetes is a new and revolutionary open-sourced system for managing containers across multiple hosts in a cluster. Ansible is a simple IT automation tool for just about any requirement for reproducible environments. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 18th Cloud Expo, Patrick Galbraith, a principal engineer at HPE, discussed how to build a fully functional Kubernetes cluster on a number of virtual machines or bare-metal hosts. Also included will be a brief demonstration of running a Galera MySQL cluster as a Kubernetes application.
The now mainstream platform changes stemming from the first Internet boom brought many changes but didn’t really change the basic relationship between servers and the applications running on them. In fact, that was sort of the point. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Gordon Haff, senior cloud strategy marketing and evangelism manager at Red Hat, will discuss how today’s workloads require a new model and a new platform for development and execution. The platform must handle a wide range of recent developments, including containers and Docker, distributed resource management, and DevOps tool ...
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes how developers and operators work together to streamline cohesive systems.
CIOs and those charged with running IT Operations are challenged to deliver secure, audited, and reliable compute environments for the applications and data for the business. Behind the scenes these tasks are often accomplished by following onerous time-consuming processes and often the management of these environments and processes will be outsourced to multiple IT service providers. In addition, the division of work is often siloed into traditional "towers" that are not well integrated for cross-functional purposes. So, when traditional IT Service Management (ITSM) meets the cloud, and equal...
You are moving to the Cloud. The question is not if, it’s when. Now that your competitors are in the cloud and lapping you, your “when” better hurry up and get here. But saying and doing are two different things. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 18th Cloud Expo, Robert Reeves, CTO of Datical, explained how DevOps can be your onramp to the cloud. By adopting simple, platform independent DevOps strategies, you can accelerate your move to the cloud. Spoiler Alert: He also makes sure you don’t forget the database in your adoption of DevOps and the cloud.
Your business relies on your applications and your employees to stay in business. Whether you develop apps or manage business critical apps that help fuel your business, what happens when users experience sluggish performance? You and all technical teams across the organization – application, network, operations, among others, as well as, those outside the organization, like ISPs and third-party providers – are called in to solve the problem.
@DevOpsSummit taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City, and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
NHK, Japan Broadcasting, will feature the upcoming @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley in a special 'Internet of Things' and smart technology documentary that will be filmed on the expo floor between November 3 to 5, 2015, in Santa Clara. NHK is the sole public TV network in Japan equivalent to the BBC in the UK and the largest in Asia with many award-winning science and technology programs. Japanese TV is producing a documentary about IoT and Smart technology and will be covering @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley. The program, to be aired during the peak viewership season of the year, will have a major impac...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support, the Men & Mice Suite is taking overlay dexterity one step further into the cloud through full suppo...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed for digital business, Catchpoint is the only end-user experience monitoring (EUM) platform that can...
@DevOpsSummit taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City, and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited to help the great team at @DevOpsSummit and Cloud Expo tell the world how they can leverage this emerging disrupt...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Addteq will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Addteq is one of the top 10 Platinum Atlassian Experts who specialize in DevOps, custom and continuous integration, automation, plugin development, and consulting for midsize and global firms. Addteq firmly believes that automation is essential for successful software releases. Addteq centers its products and services around this fundamentally unique approach to delivering complete software release manage...
SYS-CON Events announced today that FalconStor Software® Inc., a 15-year innovator of software-defined storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. FalconStor Software®, Inc. (NASDAQ: FALC) is a leading software-defined storage company offering a converged, hardware-agnostic, software-defined storage and data services platform. Its flagship solution FreeStor®, utilizes a horizontal architecture that unlocks a new world of storage opportunities, allowing IT managers, MSPs, and CS...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Fusion, a leading provider of cloud services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Fusion, a leading provider of integrated cloud solutions to small, medium and large businesses, is the industry's single source for the cloud. Fusion's advanced, proprietary cloud service platform enables the integration of leading edge solutions in the cloud, including cloud communications, cloud connectivity, and cloud computing. Fusion's innovative, yet proven cloud solu...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound cha...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Column Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1998, Column Technologies is a global technology solutions provider with over 400 employees, headquartered in the United States with offices in Canada, India, and the United Kingdom. Column Technologies provides “Best of Breed” technology solutions that automate the key DevOps principals and help our customers meet today’s DevOps and Digital Transformation challenges.
SYS-CON Events announced today that (ISC)²® (“ISC-squared”) will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Two leading non-profits focused on cloud and information security, (ISC)² and Cloud Security Alliance (CSA), developed the Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP) certification to address the increased demand for cloud security expertise due to rapid growth in cloud. Recently named “The Next Big Thing”, the CCSP is the #1 certification survey respondents plan to earn in 2016, according to ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM Cloud Data Services has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. IBM Cloud Data Services offers a portfolio of integrated, best-of-breed cloud data services for developers focused on mobile computing and analytics use cases.