Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

@DevOpsSummit Authors: Elizabeth White, Carmen Gonzalez, Liz McMillan, VictorOps Blog, Pat Romanski

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Linux Containers, Containers Expo Blog, @BigDataExpo, @DevOpsSummit

@CloudExpo: Article

Wasted IT Resources

Resource consolidation through newer architectures and solutions like PaaS is a way to tackle this

David Rubinstein's post "Industry Watch: Be resilient as you PaaS" makes a very good point about underutilized hardware in IT data-centers.

Millions of enterprise workloads remain in data centers, where servers are 30% to 40% underutilized, and that's if they're virtualized. If not, they're only using 5% to 7% of capacity.

The reason for this?

Take, for example, servers that are spun up for a project two years ago that were never decommissioned, just sitting there, waiting for a new workload that will never come. And, because the costs of blades and racks went down, cheap hardware has led to a kind of data center sprawl.

So is IT buying new hardware for each new project and not recycling? Is this because projects do not clearly die? Do we need "time of death" announcements mandated on IT projects?

Late last year, the US Government Accountability Office reported that the Federal IT spends 70% of its IT budget on care for legacy systems. That's $56 billion! How many of those legacy systems are rusty old projects with low utilization and are over-consuming resources?

Who wants those old servers? They might only be 2 years "old," but each new project has its own requirements and trying to retrofit old hardware to shiny new projects is probably undesirable. A project has a budget and specifications. A project needs X number of machines, with Y gigabytes of RAM and numerous other requirements. Can second-hand hardware fit the bill? If it can, can we find enough of it? Nobody wants a Frankenstein's monster of a cluster or the risk that it would be difficult to grow the cluster in the future. Better to go with new servers.

IaaS
IaaS provides a path to a solution. It makes it easier to provision and decommission resources. Virtual machines can be sized to fit the task. Even if specific new hardware is required to meet the SLA (Service Level Agreement) demands of a new project, it can be recycled back in the available resources.

But does IaaS go far enough?

IaaS provides infrastructure to be used by projects. But as David Rubinstein points out, even virtualized machines are still 30% to 40% underutilized. This is because virtual machines are provisioned as a best guess of what might be required by the software that is intended to run on it. The business does the math of the traffic they hope to receive and then adds some padding to be safe. They pass the numbers to Operations who provision the machines. Once a machine is provisioned those resources are locked in.

Virtualized or not, adding and removing servers to a cluster can be logistically difficult if the application is not designed with scale in mind. When it comes to legacy IT, it is probably better to leave as-is than to invest more resources and risk in a project that is receiving no engineering attention.

Configuration Management
While IaaS is an essential building block of the cloud, it is not the solution. Pioneers in the age of DevOps have shifted the mindset from pets (knowing every machine by its cute name) to cattle (anonymous machines in named clusters). But even on the other side of this transition we are still focused on machines and operating systems.

Configuration management helps us to wrangle and make sense of our cattle. It whips our machines into some kind of uniform shape with the intention of moving them all in the same direction, but not without considerable sweat and tears. Snowflake servers that did not receive that last vital update, for reasons unknown, bring disease to the herd.

In Andrew C. Oliver's InfoWorld post "The platform-as-a-service winner is ... Puppet", he makes a good point that IT organizations are also "not a beautiful or unique snowflake".

Whatever you're doing with your IT infrastructure, someone else is probably doing the exact same thing. If what you're doing is so damn unique, then you're probably adding needless layers of complexity and you should stop.

Is configuration management the answer? It enables every organization to build beautiful unique snowflakes, but all the business actually wants is an igloo.

Thin Servers
Servers are getting thinner. There is shift from caring about the overhead of the operating systems to focusing on the processes. CoreOS is great example of this and there is also boot2docker on the development side. We will no doubt see many more flavors of this in the next few years.

If we encapsulate the complexity of software applications and services in containers then the host operating system becomes much simpler, less of a concern and more standardized. If we can find an elegant way to spread the containers across our cluster then we only need to provision a cluster of thin standardized servers to house them.

Containers
Why Containers? Why not virtual machines or hardware?

Filling a cluster with virtual machines, where each virtual machine is dedicated to a single task is wasteful. It's like trying to utilize the space in a jar by filling it with marbles, when we could be filling it with sand. Depending on your hardware and virtual machine relationship, it might even be like filling it with oranges.

Containers are also portable - and not just in a deployment sense. In a recent talk on "Google Compute Engine and Docker", Marc Cohen from Google spoke about how they migrate running GAE instances from one datacenter to another, while only seeing a flicker of transitional downtime. vSphere also has similar tools for doing this with virtual machines. Surely, it is only a matter of time before we see this commonly available with Linux containers.

Clusters
We need clusters; not machines, not operating systems. We need clusters that support containers. Maybe we need "Cluster-as-a-Service." Actually, maybe we don't need any more "-as-a-Service" acronyms.

Just as we have stopped caring about the unique name of individual servers, we should stop caring about the details of a cluster. When I have a machine with 16Gb of RAM, do I need to care if it's 2x8Gb DIMMS or 4x4Gb? No, I only need to know that this machine gives me "16Gb of RAM". Eventually we will view clusters in the same way.

Now that we can fill jars with sand instead of oranges, we can be less particular about the size and shape of the jars we choose to build our cluster. Throwing away old jars is easier when we can pour the sand into a new jar.

The Why
I believe we always should start with "why." Why am I writing a script to run continuous integration and ensure I always have the latest version of HAProxy installed on all the frontend servers? Why are we buying more RAM and installing Memcached servers?

The "why" is ultimately a business reason - which is a long way from the command-line prompt.

Todd Underwood's excellent talk on "PostOps: A Non-Surgical Tale of Software, Fragility, and Reliability" highlights the SLA as the contract that is made with the business and ensures that the Operations team is delivering the throughput, response time and uptime that the business expects. Beyond that they have free reign to ensure that the SLA is met.

Too many SysAdmins and Operations Engineers are stuck in the mindset of machines and operating systems. They have spent their careers thinking this way and honing their skills. They focus too much on the "what" and the "how", not on the "why".

At some level these skills are vital. The harder you push, the more likely it is that you will find a problem further down the stack and have to roll up your sleeves and get dirty.

Operations teams are responsible every level of stack, from the metal upwards. Even in the age of "the cloud" and outsourcing, an Operations team that does not feel that they themselves are ultimately responsible for their stack will have issues at some point. An example of this is Netflix, who use Amazon's cloud infrastructure service and may actually understand it better than Amazon. They take responsibility for their stack very seriously and because of this they are able to provide an amazingly resilient service at incredible scale.

Focusing solely on machines and operating systems does not scale and too many IT departments find it difficult to transcend this. Netflix are a good example here too. When you have tens of thousands of machines you are not going worry about keeping them all in sync or fixing machines that are having issues unless it is pandemic. Use virtualization, create golden images, if a machine is limping - shoot it. This is how Netflix operates. And to ensure that their sharp-shooters are always at the top of their game, Netflix uses tools like Chaos Monkey. They are purposely putting wolves amongst their sheep.

DevOps is a movement that aims to liberate IT from its legacy mindset. It aims to step back and take a look at the bigger picture. View business needs. Address the needs that span across the currently siloed Dev and Ops. This may be through fancy new orchestration and CI tools or be through organizational changes.

Tools and infrastructure are evolving so quickly that the best tool today will not be the best tool tomorrow. It is difficult to keep up.

Todd Underwood said that Operations Engineers, or rather Site Reliability Engineers, at Google are always working just outside of their own understanding. This is the best way to keep moving forward. From this, I take that if you fully understand the tools you are using, you are probably moving too slowly and falling behind. Just do not move so quickly that you jeopardize operational safety.

As long as we focus on "why", we can keep building our stack around that purpose instead of around our favorite naming convention, our favorite operating system and favorite toolset.

PaaS
PaaS is currently the best tool for orchestrating the container layer above the cluster layer. It manages the sand in your jars. ActiveState's PaaS solution, Stackato, also provides a way to manage the human side of your infrastructure. By integrating with your LDAP server, providing organizational and social aspects you can see your applications as applications, rather than as infrastructure.

As Troy Topnik points out in a recent post IaaS is not required to run Stackato. Although an IaaS will make managing your cluster easier as you grow.

But will an IaaS help with managing your resources at the application level? No. Will it help identify wasted resources? No. Will it put you directly in touch with the owners of the applications? No. But PaaS will.

Visibility
The reasons for waste in IT organizations are many. One reason is the way resources are provisioned for projects. The boundaries of a project are defined too far down the stack, even though a project may simply be defined by a series of processes, message queues and datastores. Another reason for waste is bad utilization of resources from the outset - not building the infrastructure where resources can be shared. A third reason for waste is lack of visibility into where waste is occurring.

Lack of visibility comes from not being able to see or reason about machines and projects. Machine responsibilities may be cataloged by IT, but will it be visible by all involved? Building the relationship between machines, processes and projects is still a documentation task without PaaS.

If redundant applications are not visible to the entire organization, then those accountable for announcing "time of death" will less likely make that call. Old projects which should be end-of-lifed will continue to over-consume their allocated resources - resources that were allocated with the hope of what the project may one day become.

Conclusion
Nobody likes waste. Resource consolidation through newer architectures and solutions like PaaS is a way to tackle this. PaaS brings more visibility to your IT infrastructure. It exposes resources at the application level. It spreads resources evenly across your cluster in a way that enables you to scale up and down with ease and utilizes all your hardware efficiently.

Source: ActiveState, originally published, here.

More Stories By Phil Whelan

Phil Whelan has been a software developer at ActiveState since early 2012 and has been involved in many layers of the Stackato product, from the JavaScript-based web console right through to the Cloud Controller API. He has been the lead developer on kato, the command-line tool for administering Stackato. His current role at ActiveState is Technology Evangelist.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@DevOpsSummit Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that G2G3 will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit Silicon Valley, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Based on a collective appreciation for user experience, design, and technology, G2G3 is uniquely qualified and motivated to redefine how organizations and people engage in an increasingly digital world.
DevOps Summit, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long development cycles that produce software that is obsolete at launch. DevOps may be disruptive, but it is essent...
Whether you like it or not, DevOps is on track for a remarkable alliance with security. The SEC didn’t approve the merger. And your boss hasn’t heard anything about it. Yet, this unruly triumvirate will soon dominate and deliver DevSecOps faster, cheaper, better, and on an unprecedented scale. In his session at DevOps Summit, Frank Bunger, VP of Customer Success at ScriptRock, will discuss how this cathartic moment will propel the DevOps movement from such stuff as dreams are made on to a practical, powerful, and insanely valuable asset to enterprises. You may call it DevSecOps, or SecDevOps...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DataClear Inc. will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The DataClear ‘BlackBox’ is the only solution that moves your PC, browsing and data out of the United States and away from prying (and spying) eyes. Its solution automatically builds you a clean, on-demand, virus free, new virtual cloud based PC outside of the United States, and wipes it clean, destroying it completely when you log out. If you wish to store your data, the solution will inclu...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
Any Ops team trying to support a company in today’s cloud-connected world knows that a new way of thinking is required – one just as dramatic than the shift from Ops to DevOps. The diversity of modern operations requires teams to focus their impact on breadth vs. depth. In his session at DevOps Summit, Adam Serediuk, Director of Operations at xMatters, Inc., will discuss the strategic requirements of evolving from Ops to DevOps, and why modern Operations has begun leveraging the “NoOps” approach. NoOps enables developers to deploy, manage, and scale their own code, creating an infrastructure...
In today's digital world, change is the one constant. Disruptive innovations like cloud, mobility, social media, and the Internet of Things have reshaped the market and set new standards in customer expectations. To remain competitive, businesses must tap the potential of emerging technologies and markets through the rapid release of new products and services. However, the rigid and siloed structures of traditional IT platforms and processes are slowing them down – resulting in lengthy delivery cycles and a poor customer experience.
SYS-CON Events announced today the Containers & Microservices Bootcamp, being held November 3-4, 2015, in conjunction with 17th Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, and @DevOpsSummit at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. This is your chance to get started with the latest technology in the industry. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the Containers and Microservices Bootcamp, led by Janakiram MSV, a Microsoft Regional Director, will include presentations as well as hands-on demos and comprehensive walkthroughs.
Everyone talks about continuous integration and continuous delivery but those are just two ends of the pipeline. In the middle of DevOps is continuous testing (CT), and many organizations are struggling to implement continuous testing effectively. After all, without continuous testing there is no delivery. And Lab-As-A-Service (LaaS) enhances the CT with dynamic on-demand self-serve test topologies. CT together with LAAS make a powerful combination that perfectly serves complex software development and delivery pipelines. Software Defined Networks (SDNs) turns the network into a flexible confi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that the "Second Containers & Microservices Expo" will take place November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities.
Mobile, social, Big Data, and cloud have fundamentally changed the way we live. “Anytime, anywhere” access to data and information is no longer a luxury; it’s a requirement, in both our personal and professional lives. For IT organizations, this means pressure has never been greater to deliver meaningful services to the business and customers.
eCube Systems has released NXTmonitor, a full featured application orchestration solution. NXTmonitor, which inherited the code base of NXTminder, has been extended to support multi-discipline processes and will act as a DevOps utility in a heterogeneous enterprise environment. Previously, NXTminder was packaged with NXTera middleware to configure and manage Entera and NXTera RPC servers. “Since we are widening the focus of this solution to DevOps, we felt the need to change the name to NXTmonitor to accurately reflect the operations monitoring features it provides,” says Kevin Barnes, Presi...
Akana has announced the availability of the new Akana Healthcare Solution. The API-driven solution helps healthcare organizations accelerate their transition to being secure, digitally interoperable businesses. It leverages the Health Level Seven International Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (HL7 FHIR) standard to enable broader business use of medical data. Akana developed the Healthcare Solution in response to healthcare businesses that want to increase electronic, multi-device access to health records while reducing operating costs and complying with government regulations.
Enterprises can achieve rigorous IT security as well as improved DevOps practices and Cloud economics by taking a new, cloud-native approach to application delivery. Because the attack surface for cloud applications is dramatically different than for highly controlled data centers, a disciplined and multi-layered approach that spans all of your processes, staff, vendors and technologies is required. This may sound expensive and time consuming to achieve as you plan how to move selected applications to the cloud, but smart organizations are actually reporting an improved security posture, accel...
Containers are not new, but renewed commitments to performance, flexibility, and agility have propelled them to the top of the agenda today. By working without the need for virtualization and its overhead, containers are seen as the perfect way to deploy apps and services across multiple clouds. Containers can handle anything from file types to operating systems and services, including microservices. What are microservices? Unlike what the name implies, microservices are not necessarily small, but are focused on specific tasks. The ability for developers to deploy multiple containers – thous...
Advances in technology and ubiquitous connectivity have made the utilization of a dispersed workforce more common. Whether that remote team is located across the street or country, management styles/ approaches will have to be adjusted to accommodate this new dynamic. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Sagi Brody, Chief Technology Officer at Webair Internet Development Inc., will focus on the challenges of managing remote teams, providing real-world examples that demonstrate what works and what doesn’t. It will cover proper training and integration of these teams into the corporate structure,...
Puppet Labs is pleased to share the findings from our 2015 State of DevOps Survey. We have deepened our understanding of how DevOps enables IT performance and organizational performance, based on responses from more than 20,000 technical professionals we’ve surveyed over the past four years. The 2015 State of DevOps Report reveals high-performing IT organizations deploy 30x more frequently with 200x shorter lead times. They have 60x fewer failures and recover 168x faster
The 5th International DevOps Summit, co-located with 17th International Cloud Expo – being held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real results. Among the proven benefits, DevOps is corr...
The 17th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. 17th International Cloud Expo, to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, APM, APIs, Microservices, Security, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal today!
ElasticBox, the agile application delivery manager, announced freely available public boxes for the DevOps community. ElasticBox works with enterprises to help them deploy any application to any cloud. Public boxes are curated reference boxes that represent some of the most popular applications and tools for orchestrating deployments at scale. Boxes are an adaptive way to represent reusable infrastructure as components of code. Boxes contain scripts, variables, and metadata to automate processes for deploying applications to any cloud infrastructure. Stitched together, boxes model complex p...
To support developers and operations professionals in their push to implement DevOps principles for their infrastructure environments, ProfitBricks, a provider of cloud infrastructure, is adding support for DevOps tools Ansible and Chef. Ansible is a platform for configuring and managing data center infrastructure that combines multi-node software deployment, ad hoc task execution, and configuration management, and is used by DevOps professionals as they use its playbooks functionality to automate cloud infrastructure. Chef, which is written in the Ruby programming language, makes it easier t...
It’s been proven time and time again that in tech, diversity drives greater innovation, better team productivity and greater profits and market share. So what can we do in our DevOps teams to embrace diversity and help transform the culture of development and operations into a true “DevOps” team? In her session at DevOps Summit, Stefana Muller, Director, Product Management – Continuous Delivery at CA Technologies, answered that question citing examples, showing how to create opportunities for diverse candidates and taking feedback from the audience on their experiences with encouraging diver...
Puppet Labs has announced the next major update to its flagship product: Puppet Enterprise 2015.2. This release includes new features providing DevOps teams with clarity, simplicity and additional management capabilities, including an all-new user interface, an interactive graph for visualizing infrastructure code, a new unified agent and broader infrastructure support.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pythian, a global IT services company specializing in helping companies leverage disruptive technologies to optimize revenue-generating systems, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Founded in 1997, Pythian is a global IT services company that helps companies compete by adopting disruptive technologies such as cloud, Big Data, advanced analytics, and DevOps to advance innovation and increase agility. Specializing in designing, imple...
Skeuomorphism usually means retaining existing design cues in something new that doesn’t actually need them. However, the concept of skeuomorphism can be thought of as relating more broadly to applying existing patterns to new technologies that, in fact, cry out for new approaches. In his session at DevOps Summit, Gordon Haff, Senior Cloud Strategy Marketing and Evangelism Manager at Red Hat, discussed why containers should be paired with new architectural practices such as microservices rather than mimicking legacy server virtualization workflows and architectures.