Welcome!

@DevOpsSummit Authors: Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Pat Romanski, Aruna Ravichandran, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: @DevOpsSummit, Microservices Expo, Linux Containers

@DevOpsSummit: Article

Docker Containers and #Microservices | @DevOpsSummit #DevOps #Docker

How Docker has transformed continuous delivery and how Linux and Windows can further accelerate our digital future

A History of Docker Containers and the Birth of Microservices
by Scott Willson

From the conception of Docker containers to the unfolding microservices revolution we see today, here is a brief history of what I like to call 'containerology'.

In 2013, we were solidly in the monolithic application era. I had noticed that a growing amount of effort was going into deploying and configuring applications. As applications had grown in complexity and interdependency over the years, the effort to install and configure them was becoming significant. But the road did not end with a single deployment, no, the installation and configuration work was repeated over and over again, not only for each software release but for each and every environment that we promote applications to until finally being deposited into production, where this we repeat this exercise one last time.

What struck me in 2013 was that these monolithic apps were overwhelmingly being deployed inside virtual machines (VMs). Whether the targeted environment was for Development, QA or Production, VMs were the deployment endpoint that hosted the applications.

Promoting the VM image
At that time, I thought that it would save considerable time and effort if the VM image is directly promoted instead of the myriad number application artifacts. Think of it; I told people. IT personnel need only perform update and configuration tasks once, then after the application execution proves stable, the VM image can then be promoted up the delivery pipeline as a ready-to-run container. Conceptually, all that was needed was for an IT professional to make a few network changes to the VM each step along the way, and then swap out the older versioned VM image for the new image.

It sounded simple enough. As is often the case, reality turned out to be more difficult. The problem was that VM images were too big to be considered conveniently deployable artifacts, and there were more changes needed to the VMs than simple network settings, such as infrastructure, security and storage properties.

Though using a VM image as a transportable application container wasn't feasible at the time, I fell in love with the idea of being able to promote an immutable package that was tested, verified and warranted, rather than deploying numerous files that required various configuration changes. What I didn't realize at the time was that Linux kernel partitioning would provide the foundation for fulfilling my vision.

Docker is born
The Linux kernel had been undergoing changes along these lines since 2006 but had matured enough for a company called, dotCloud to create the Docker project in 2010. Docker wasn't just providing a framework for spinning up and spinning down Linux kernel partitions, or containers; they were focused on using these containers as stateless app-in-a-box hosts for single applications. Docker containers were set to change fundamentally the way applications are architected, developed and delivered.

In 2013 Docker Inc. was born, and in 2016, the Docker Data Center and Docker Cloud have come online. Docker provides an abstraction layer to Linux containers, which guarantees the runtime environment exposed to an application will be identical no matter where the container is hosted and runs as long as the container is running in a Docker host. The Docker image is now the immutable package that can be promoted up through the Continuous Delivery pipeline and can safely enable Continuous Deployment.

Container-Map.jpg

Since containers are an isolated process space running inside the Linux OS (figure 1), their "boot time" is measured in seconds if not milliseconds. Swapping in and out new images for old ones happens virtually instantaneously, and Docker images are small enough to reside within versioned repositories meaning rolling back a failed deployment is easy and nearly instantaneous. If an error is detected post-deployment, simply swap out the current image with the previous version.

Microsoft joins the ‘containerology' party
Microsoft also recognized the benefit of containerology - the architecting, developing, hosting, and deploying of containerized applications. In 2015, they announced that Windows too will offer container technology (Figure 2).

Windows containers come in two runtime flavors, Windows Server Core and Nano Server. Windows containers also provide two different types of isolation. A Windows Server Container is like its Linux counterpart, in that it is an isolated process space running inside the Windows OS. Additionally, like Linux, all containers share the same kernel. However, Microsoft offers a second, more secure, version of a container called a Hyper-V container. In a Hyper-V container, the kernel the application interacts with is a virtual kernel, and not the OS's actual kernel. In other words, Hyper-V containers are completely isolated from one another even down to the kernel level.

Windows-Service-Docker-Engine.jpg

Not only has Microsoft jumped on the container bandwagon, but they also shared the vision of Docker's application focused model for containers. Microsoft partnered with Docker, and as a result, one can run Linux or Windows containers with Docker. Being able to run applications in either Linux or Windows hosted containers will provide companies flexibility and reduce any refactoring costs associated with rewriting, tweaking or re-architecting existing applications.

The bold new world that containerology will take us to is that of microservices. In my opinion, microservices (specifically as enabled by Docker) represent the first feasible step towards mechanized or industrialized applications. In the mechanical engineering world, complex systems were built buying off the shelf components and widgets. In contrast, the software world was accustomed to fabricating every part needed to built complex applications.

Microsoft and the Object Management Group attempted to address this problem by defining COM and CORBA respectively, however, these had their challenges and neither standard ever fully realized a universal market of reusable components that any developer could assemble to build any application on any platform. I am not going to go into SOA or SOAP in this article, but suffice it to say, the software industry has tried and failed to deliver anything that approached the standardization, and standardized tooling of the manufacturing sector.

How microservices can revolutionize app development
Microservices can change that. Each microservice offers a single focused application that performs a particular function. A Docker container provides an immutable, portable and stateless package for microservices. Docker container images can be shipped, shared and versioned as well as be used as a foundation for building new containers. Docker Hub provides ready to use images that can be downloaded and assembled into more complex applications.

Need the software equivalent of an actuator, a cog, wheel or gear? As of today, and going forward one will be able to download desired "prefab" components rather than having to build each and every widget, component or interface from scratch. Docker has addressed security concerns with this level of sharing and reuse with their Content Trust. Docker Content Trust makes it possible to verify the publisher of Docker images and guarantees the contents of the image.

We are heading into yet another technology transformation which is both exciting and challenging - it always is. The word 'disruptive' has come into vogue of late, but the when hasn't the software industry been disruptive? Look what the invention of the spreadsheet did to floors of accounting departments.

Word processors, ERP systems, RDBMSs, smart phones, the Internet. The list goes on, and will continue to go on - change is the norm in the world of technology and especially software. I share Docker's vision, a world of downloadable, reusable and adaptable components that can be used to assemble sophisticated or complex applications. I hope that the need to continually reinvent the wheel will become more of an exception than the rule in the future.

More Stories By Automic Blog

Automic, a leader in business automation, helps enterprises drive competitive advantage by automating their IT factory - from on-premise to the Cloud, Big Data and the Internet of Things.

With offices across North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, Automic powers over 2,600 customers including Bosch, PSA, BT, Carphone Warehouse, Deutsche Post, Societe Generale, TUI and Swisscom. The company is privately held by EQT. More information can be found at www.automic.com.

@DevOpsSummit Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Yuasa System will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Yuasa System is introducing a multi-purpose endurance testing system for flexible displays, OLED devices, flexible substrates, flat cables, and films in smartphones, wearables, automobiles, and healthcare.
DevOps is under attack because developers don’t want to mess with infrastructure. They will happily own their code into production, but want to use platforms instead of raw automation. That’s changing the landscape that we understand as DevOps with both architecture concepts (CloudNative) and process redefinition (SRE). Rob Hirschfeld’s recent work in Kubernetes operations has led to the conclusion that containers and related platforms have changed the way we should be thinking about DevOps and controlling infrastructure. The rise of Site Reliability Engineering (SRE) is part of that redefinition of operations vs development roles in organizations.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dasher Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Dasher Technologies, Inc. ® is a premier IT solution provider that delivers expert technical resources along with trusted account executives to architect and deliver complete IT solutions and services to help our clients execute their goals, plans and objectives. Since 1999, we've helped public, private and nonprofit organizations implement technology solutions that speed and simplify their operations. As one of the fastest growing IT solution providers in the country, we have gained a reputation for effortless implementations with relentless follow-through and enduring support.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks, that helps your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. As a premier telecommunications provider, Massive Networks is headquartered out of Louisville, Colorado. With years of experience under their belt, their team of engineers can navigate the Carrier Ecosystem for your IT team acting as an extension of your business, producing a hassle-free experience.
We all know that end users experience the Internet primarily with mobile devices. From an app development perspective, we know that successfully responding to the needs of mobile customers depends on rapid DevOps – failing fast, in short, until the right solution evolves in your customers' relationship to your business. Whether you’re decomposing an SOA monolith, or developing a new application cloud natively, it’s not a question of using microservices – not doing so will be a path to eventual business failure.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Taica will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Taica manufacturers Alpha-GEL brand silicone components and materials, which maintain outstanding performance over a wide temperature range -40C to +200C. For more information, visit http://www.taica.co.jp/english/.
SYS-CON Events announced today that TidalScale, a leading provider of systems and services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TidalScale has been involved in shaping the computing landscape. They've designed, developed and deployed some of the most important and successful systems and services in the history of the computing industry - internet, Ethernet, operating systems, programming languages and microprocessors. Their elite team has collectively earned dozens of patents, three film credits and grown record setting businesses. And collectively, they've shipped more than 2 billion licensed products. They are difference makers who have a reputation for delivering innovative products and accomplishing what many others don't believe is even possible. They are ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MIRAI Inc. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MIRAI Inc. are IT consultants from the public sector whose mission is to solve social issues by technology and innovation and to create a meaningful future for people.
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM has been named “Diamond Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st Cloud Expo, which will take place on October 31 through November 2nd 2017 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, California.
SYS-CON Events announced today that TidalScale will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TidalScale is the leading provider of Software-Defined Servers that bring flexibility to modern data centers by right-sizing servers on the fly to fit any data set or workload. TidalScale’s award-winning inverse hypervisor technology combines multiple commodity servers (including their associated CPUs, memory storage and network) into one or more large servers capable of handling the biggest Big Data problems and most unpredictable workloads.
Join IBM November 1 at 21st Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, and learn how IBM Watson can bring cognitive services and AI to intelligent, unmanned systems. Cognitive analysis impacts today’s systems with unparalleled ability that were previously available only to manned, back-end operations. Thanks to cloud processing, IBM Watson can bring cognitive services and AI to intelligent, unmanned systems. Imagine a robot vacuum that becomes your personal assistant that knows everything and can respond to your emotions and verbal commands!
Infoblox delivers Actionable Network Intelligence to enterprise, government, and service provider customers around the world. They are the industry leader in DNS, DHCP, and IP address management, the category known as DDI. We empower thousands of organizations to control and secure their networks from the core-enabling them to increase efficiency and visibility, improve customer service, and meet compliance requirements.
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Michael Burley, a Senior Business Development Executive in IT Services at NetApp, will describe how NetApp designed a three-year program of work to migrate 25PB of a major telco's enterprise data to a new STaaS platform, and then secured a long-term contract to manage and operate the platform. This significant program blended the best of NetApp’s solutions and services capabilities to enable this telco’s successful adoption of private cloud storage and launching of virtual storage services to its enterprise market.
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm. In their Day 3 Keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Brown, a Solutions Marketing Manager at Nutanix, and Mark Lavi, a Nutanix DevOps Solution Architect, explored the ways that Nutanix technologies empower teams to react faster than ever before and connect teams in ways that were either too complex or simply impossible with traditional infrastructures.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend 21st Cloud Expo October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center, CA, and June 12-14, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann and Aruna Ravichandran have been named Co-Chairs of @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo Silicon Valley which will take place Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "DevOps is at the intersection of technology and business-optimizing tools, organizations and processes to bring measurable improvements in productivity and profitability," said Aruna Ravichandran, vice president, DevOps product and solutions marketing, CA Technologies. "It's this results-driven combination of technology and business that makes me so passionate about DevOps and its future in the industry. I am truly honored to take on this co-chair role, and look forward to working with the DevOps Summit team at Cloud Expo and attendees to advance DevOps."
SYS-CON Events announced today that mruby Forum will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. mruby is the lightweight implementation of the Ruby language. We introduce mruby and the mruby IoT framework that enhances development productivity. For more information, visit http://forum.mruby.org/.
The dynamic nature of the cloud means that change is a constant when it comes to modern cloud-based infrastructure. Delivering modern applications to end users, therefore, is a constantly shifting challenge. Delivery automation helps IT Ops teams ensure that apps are providing an optimal end user experience over hybrid-cloud and multi-cloud environments, no matter what the current state of the infrastructure is. To employ a delivery automation strategy that reflects your business rules, making real-time decisions based on a combination of real user monitoring, synthetic testing, APM, NGINX / local load balancers, and other data sources, is critical.
Digital transformation is changing the face of business. The IDC predicts that enterprises will commit to a massive new scale of digital transformation, to stake out leadership positions in the "digital transformation economy." Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, Oct 31-Nov 2, will find fresh new content in a new track called Enterprise Cloud & Digital Transformation.
Most technology leaders, contemporary and from the hardware era, are reshaping their businesses to do software. They hope to capture value from emerging technologies such as IoT, SDN, and AI. Ultimately, irrespective of the vertical, it is about deriving value from independent software applications participating in an ecosystem as one comprehensive solution. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kausik Sridhar, founder and CTO of Pulzze Systems, will discuss how given the magnitude of today's application ecosystem, tweaking existing software to stitch various components together leads to sub-optimal solutions. This definitely deserves a re-think, and paves the way for a new breed of lightweight application servers that are micro-services and DevOps ready!
SYS-CON Events announced today that NetApp has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. NetApp is the data authority for hybrid cloud. NetApp provides a full range of hybrid cloud data services that simplify management of applications and data across cloud and on-premises environments to accelerate digital transformation. Together with their partners, NetApp empowers global organizations to unleash the full potential of their data to expand customer touchpoints, foster greater innovation and optimize their operations.
Enterprises are adopting Kubernetes to accelerate the development and the delivery of cloud-native applications. However, sharing a Kubernetes cluster between members of the same team can be challenging. And, sharing clusters across multiple teams is even harder. Kubernetes offers several constructs to help implement segmentation and isolation. However, these primitives can be complex to understand and apply. As a result, it’s becoming common for enterprises to end up with several clusters. This leads to a waste of cloud resources and increased operational overhead.
In a recent survey, Sumo Logic surveyed 1,500 customers who employ cloud services such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). According to the survey, a quarter of the respondents have already deployed Docker containers and nearly as many (23 percent) are employing the AWS Lambda serverless computing framework. It’s clear: serverless is here to stay. The adoption does come with some needed changes, within both application development and operations. That means serverless is also changing the way we leverage public clouds. Truth-be-told, many enterprise IT shops were so happy to get out of the management of physical servers within a data center that many limitations of the existing public IaaS clouds were forgiven. However, now that we’ve lived a few years with public IaaS clouds, developers and CloudOps pros are giving a huge thumbs down to the ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Avere Systems, a leading provider of enterprise storage for the hybrid cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Avere delivers a more modern architectural approach to storage that doesn't require the overprovisioning of storage capacity to achieve performance, overspending on expensive storage media for inactive data or the overbuilding of data centers to house increasing amounts of storage infrastructure.
Containers are rapidly finding their way into enterprise data centers, but change is difficult. How do enterprises transform their architecture with technologies like containers without losing the reliable components of their current solutions? In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 21st Cloud Expo, Tony Campbell, Director, Educational Services at CoreOS, will explore the challenges organizations are facing today as they move to containers and go over how Kubernetes applications can deploy with legacy components, and also go over automated capabilities provided by operators to auto-update Kubernetes with zero downtime for current and secure deployments.