Welcome!

@DevOpsSummit Authors: Elizabeth White, Zakia Bouachraoui, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Roger Strukhoff

Related Topics: @DevOpsSummit, Microservices Expo, Containers Expo Blog

@DevOpsSummit: Blog Post

Characterizing and Contrasting Container Orchestrators | @DevOpsSummit #DevOps #Containers

There is no one perfect solution

Admiral Calcote - also known as Lee Calcote (@lcalcote) or the Ginger Geek to his friends - gave a presentation entitled Characterizing and Contrasting Container Orchestrators at the 2016 All Day DevOps conference.

Okay, he isn't really an admiral - nor does anyone call him that - but he used the title admiral to describe what container orchestrators do, relating it to an admiral directing a fleet of container ships. You could also say that they are like the conductor of an orchestra, directing the individuals to work together as a group toward a common goal while each musician is still able to play their own instrument.

lee1.png

Lee is the Head of Technology Strategy at SolarWinds, and for his talk, he walked through four open-source container orchestrators: Nomad, Swarm, Kubernetes, and Mesos-Marathon.

He emphasized the obvious - there is no one perfect solution. Each organization is different, so for each solution, he looked at:

  • Genesis and purpose
  • Support and momentum
  • Host and service discovery
  • Scheduling
  • Modularity and extensibility
  • Updates and maintenance
  • Health monitoring
  • Networking and load balancing
  • Secrets management
  • High availability and scale

Lee noted that while there are many core capabilities, any orchestrator must have cluster management and scheduling.

lee2.png

He then dove deeper into the four solutions. Below are summaries (the full talk is chalked full of information and is online here):

Nomad

  • Designed for both long-lived and short-lived batch processing workloads
  • Cluster manager with declarative job specifications
  • Ensures constraints are satisfied and resource utilization is optimized by efficient task packing
  • Supports all major OSs and workloads
  • Written in Go and with a Unix philosophy
  • Host discovery: Gossip protocol - Serf is used; servers advertise full set of Nomad servers to clients; creating federated clusters is simple
  • Service discovery: Integrates with Consul
  • Scheduling: two distinct phases - feasibility checking and ranking; optimistically concurrent; three scheduler types when creating jobs
  • Uses task drivers to execute a task and provide resource isolation, but it does not support pluggable task drivers
  • Built for managing multiple clusters/cluster federation

lee3.png

Docker Swarm 1.12

  • Simple and easy to setup
  • Architecture is not as complex as Kubernetes and Mesos
  • Written in Go - lightweight, modular, and extensible
  • Strong community support
  • Host discovery: used in the formation of clusters by the Manager to discover Nodes (hosts); pull model - worker checks-in with the Manager
  • Service discovery: Embedded DNS and round robin load-balancing
  • Scheduler is pluggable and is a combination of strategies and filters/constraints
  • Ability to remove "batteries"
  • Rolling updates are supported
  • Managers may be deployed in a highly-available configuration, but does not support multiple failure isolation regions or federation

lee4.png

Kubernetes

  • An opinionated framework for building distributed systems
  • Written in Go and is lightweight, modular, and extensible
  • Led by Google, Red Hat, and others
  • Young - about two-years-old
  • Robust documentation and community
  • Scheduling is handled by kube-scheduler
  • Pluggable architecture and an extensible platform
  • Choice of: database for service discovery or network driver and container runtime
  • Supports rolling back deployments, automating deployments and rolling updating applications
  • Inherent load balancing
  • Uses Pods, an atomic unit of scheduling. Each pod has its own IP address, no NAT required, and intra-pod communication via localhost

lee5.png

Mesos-Marathon

  • Mesos is a distributed systems kernel
  • Mesos has been around the longest (since 2009)
  • Mesos is written in C++
  • Marathon is a framework that runs on top of Mesos
  • Mesos is used by Twitter, AirBnB, eBay, Apple, Cisco, and Yodle
  • Marathon is used by Verizon and Samsung
  • Mesos-DNS generates an SRV record for each Mesos task
  • Marathon ensures that all dynamically assigned ports are unique

lee6.png

Wrapping up, Lee provided the following overview comparing the different container orchestration solutions.

lee7.png

Lee packed a tremendous amount of information into his talk. If you use containers, his talk is worth your time and is available online here. If you missed any of the other 30-minute long presentations from All Day DevOps, they are easy to find and available free-of-charge here.  Finally, be sure to register you and the rest of your team for the 2017 All Day DevOps conference here.  This year's event will offer 96 practitioner-led sessions (no vendor pitches allowed).  It's all free and online on October 24th.

More Stories By Derek Weeks

In 2015, Derek Weeks led the largest and most comprehensive analysis of software supply chain practices to date across 160,000 development organizations. He is a huge advocate of applying proven supply chain management principles into DevOps practices to improve efficiencies, reduce costs, and sustain long-lasting competitive advantages.

As a 20+ year veteran of the software industry, he has advised leading businesses on IT performance improvement practices covering continuous delivery, business process management, systems and network operations, service management, capacity planning and storage management. As the VP and DevOps Advocate for Sonatype, he is passionate about changing the way people think about software supply chains and improving public safety through improved software integrity. Follow him here @weekstweets, find me here www.linkedin.com/in/derekeweeks, and read me here http://blog.sonatype.com/author/weeks/.

@DevOpsSummit Stories
The platform combines the strengths of Singtel's extensive, intelligent network capabilities with Microsoft's cloud expertise to create a unique solution that sets new standards for IoT applications," said Mr Diomedes Kastanis, Head of IoT at Singtel. "Our solution provides speed, transparency and flexibility, paving the way for a more pervasive use of IoT to accelerate enterprises' digitalisation efforts. AI-powered intelligent connectivity over Microsoft Azure will be the fastest connected path for IoT innovators to scale globally, and the smartest path to cross-device synergy in an instrumented, connected world.
There are many examples of disruption in consumer space – Uber disrupting the cab industry, Airbnb disrupting the hospitality industry and so on; but have you wondered who is disrupting support and operations? AISERA helps make businesses and customers successful by offering consumer-like user experience for support and operations. We have built the world’s first AI-driven IT / HR / Cloud / Customer Support and Operations solution.
ScaleMP is presenting at CloudEXPO 2019, held June 24-26 in Santa Clara, and we’d love to see you there. At the conference, we’ll demonstrate how ScaleMP is solving one of the most vexing challenges for cloud — memory cost and limit of scale — and how our innovative vSMP MemoryONE solution provides affordable larger server memory for the private and public cloud. Please visit us at Booth No. 519 to connect with our experts and learn more about vSMP MemoryONE and how it is already serving some of the world’s largest data centers. Click here to schedule a meeting with our experts and executives.
Codete accelerates their clients growth through technological expertise and experience. Codite team works with organizations to meet the challenges that digitalization presents. Their clients include digital start-ups as well as established enterprises in the IT industry. To stay competitive in a highly innovative IT industry, strong R&D departments and bold spin-off initiatives is a must. Codete Data Science and Software Architects teams help corporate clients to stay up to date with the modern business digitalization solutions. Achieve up to 50% early-stage technological process development cost cutdown with science and R&D-driven investment strategy with Codete's support.
As you know, enterprise IT conversation over the past year have often centered upon the open-source Kubernetes container orchestration system. In fact, Kubernetes has emerged as the key technology -- and even primary platform -- of cloud migrations for a wide variety of organizations. Kubernetes is critical to forward-looking enterprises that continue to push their IT infrastructures toward maximum functionality, scalability, and flexibility. As they do so, IT professionals are also embracing the reality of Serverless architectures, which are critical to developing and operating real-time applications and services. Serverless is particularly important as enterprises of all sizes develop and deploy Internet of Things (IoT) initiatives.